Effects of low temperature and high salt on the activity of the novel carbapenem PZ-601 (SMP-601) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
PZ-601 (SMP-601) (Figure 1) is a novel carbapenem that binds to PBP2' (PBP2a) of staphylococci and is active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) under standard MIC test conditions. It is also active against other Gram-positive cocci， including some ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and against Escherichia coli， Klebsiella and Proteus spp. It is less active against Enterobacter spp. and not active against Gram-negative non-fermenters.Anti-MRSA activity by beta-lactams under standard conditions must， however， be treated with caution since the expression ofPBP2' and the contingent level ofbeta-lactam resistance notoriously vary with the conditions， being promoted by low temperature and increased salt. We investigated whether these factors affected the MICs of PZ-601， aiming to determine whether， like ceftobiprole and ceftaroline， it retains anti-MRSA activity even under rigorous PBP2'-inducing conditions.
正疼痛是肿瘤病人普遍存在的症 状，也是导致病人整体生活质量下降的主要原因。为了提高出院癌症疼痛病人的生活质量及健康教育效果，使病人在疼痛治疗中出现的问题得到及时的解决， 借鉴美国斯坦福大学创建的慢性病自我管理健康教育项目(chronic disease self-management program，CDSMP)的成
摘 要： 陶君仁为近代虞山医派著名代表人物，其临证用药新奇，既不拘泥古方传统，又不失辨证缜密，知常达变，笔者前期曾对先生临证思想做了初步探析，然仅为冰山一角。文章在前期研究基础上，对先生医学思路进行再析，以期更全面诠释其学术思想。
AIMS： is an important risk factor of including . ()， which was originally identified as an important marker ， is assumed to act as a novel anti-factor in various organs. However， the role of in the heart has not been previously explored. In this study， our aim was to elucidate the functional role of on cardiac remodelling. METHODS AND RESULTS： knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) were subjected to continuous II (II) infusion. After 14 days， the extent of and was significantly higher in -KO than in WT . Echocardiography revealed that -KO had more severely depressed systolic and diastolic function with left compared with WT . Generation of reactive oxygen species related with activation of -oxidase was greater in -KO than in WT . The number of deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling positive nuclei was markedly increased in -KO with activation of ， increases in the to ratio and of c-Jun N-terminal kinase compared with WT . Furthermore， the number of senescence-associated β-galactosidase-positive was significantly increased via up-regulation of in -KO compared with WT .： This study demonstrated the first evidence that deficiency of exacerbates II-induced ， dysfunction， and remodelling， suggesting that has a cardio-protective role in cardiac remodelling with anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in response to II.
Discrepancies between c-Kit positive and Ano1 positive ICC-SMP in the W/W v and wild-type mouse colon; relationships with motor patterns and calcium transients
Interstitial cells of Cajal associated with the submuscular plexus (ICC-SMP) generate omnipresent slow-wave activity in the colon and are associated with prominent motor patterns. Our aim was to investigate colon motor dysfunction in W/W(v) mice in which the ICC are reportedly reduced.Whole organ colon motility was studied using spatio-temporal mapping; immunohistochemical staining was carried out for c-Kit and Ano1; calcium imaging was applied to ICC-SMP.Discrepancies between Ano1 and c-Kit staining were found in both wild-type and W/W(v) colon. ICC-SMP were reduced to ~50% in the W/W(v) mouse colon according to c-Kit immunohistochemistry， but Ano1 staining indicated a normal network of ICC-SMP. The latter was consistent with rhythmic calcium transients occurring at the submucosal border of the colon in W/W(v) mice， similar to the rhythmic transients in wild-type ICC-SMP. Furthermore， the motor pattern associated with ICC-SMP pacemaking， the so-called 'ripples' were normal in the W/W(v) colon.c-Kit is not a reliable marker for quantifying ICC-SMP in the mouse colon. Ano1 staining revealed a normal network of ICC-SMP consistent with the presence of a normal 'ripples' motor pattern. We detected a class of Ano1 positive c-Kit negative cells that do not depend on Kit expression for maintenance， a feature shared with ICC progenitors.
The Effect of Vitamin C C-onsumption on the Oxidative Stress Regulation System in SMP30/GNL Knockout Mice
We studied how consumption of vitamin C (VC) affects the oxidative stress regulation system. SMP30/GNL knockout mice (males， n = 33)， which cannot synthesize VC， were randomly divided into three groups： the VC 100 Group consuming 1.5 g/L VC， the VC 2.5 Group consuming 0.0375 g/L VC， and the VC 0 Group consuming 0 g/L VC. To examine the oxidative stress regulation system， the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM test) and biological anti-oxidant potential (BAP test) values were measured， and the BAP/d-ROM ratio was calculated. We obtained measurements at the beginning of the study (5 weeks old： baseline) and after VC consumption for 9 weeks (14 weeks old： 9 wk). For the plasma VC concentration， plasma reduced (ascorbic acid (AA)) and plasma oxidized (dehydroascorbic acid (DHA)) were measured at 9 wk， and the total VC (AA + DHA： total) concentration was calculated. Compared to the other groups at 9 wk， the VC 100 Group showed a significantly lower value for the d-ROM test， a significantly higher value for the BAP/d-ROM ratio， no significant difference in the BAP test， and a significantly lower senescence grading score. The VC 100 Group showed a significantly higher total VC concentration compared with the other groups. Differences in consumption of VC caused a change in the d-ROM test， the BAP/d-ROM ratio， and the plasma VC concentration.
Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes After Submuscular Plating (SMP) of Pediatric Femoral Shaft Fractures.
Background： To evaluate lower extremity strength and alignment among children who underwent submuscular plating (SMP). Methods： Subjects who underwent SMP for a length unstable femoral fracture returned for isokinetic strength testing >=2 years after surgery. Extensor and flexor strength deficits (percent difference) between the operative and nonoperative limbs were evaluated. Radiographic measurements of mechanical alignment [anatomic lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA)] and qualitative measurements (The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument， PODCI) were obtained from all subjects. The upper 97.5% confidence interval approach to establishing clinical equivalency was utilized to compare differences in strength and alignment between the operative and nonoperative limbs. An extensor strength deficit of >19% and an aLDFA discrepancy of >5 degrees were considered to be clinically significant. Results： The average age at surgery of the 10 subjects included in the study was 8.7 years. The hardware was placed an average of 27.9 mm from the distal femoral physis and was removed 6.4 months postsurgery. Among all subjects， the median PODCI scores were >=97 according to all subscales. There was no significant difference in extension torque between the operative versus nonoperative limbs at 60 degrees/s (P=0.5400)， 120 degrees/s (P=0.4214)， or 180 degrees/s (P=0.8166). More importantly， extension strength deficits between the operative and nonoperative limbs were not clinically significant at 60 degrees/s [upper 97.5% confidence interval (CI)， 10.9%]， 120 degrees/s (upper 97.5% CI， 11.0%)， or 180 degrees/s (upper 97.5% CI， 10.7%). The difference in aLDFA between the operative and nonoperative limb was less than the predefined clinically significant threshold of 5 degrees for all subjects. Conclusions： SMP achieves satisfactory clinical and functional results. In this series， extensor strength deficits and/or lower extremity malalignment were not clinically meaningful. High patient satisfaction can be expected after implant removal. Level of Evidence： Level IV-case series. Copyright (C) 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health， Inc. All rights reserved.