目的 探讨排龈线和排龈膏此两种排龈方法的排龈效果，以及二者对牙周局部健康产生的影响.方法 选择2010年1月～2012年1月于我院行金属烤瓷单冠修复的患者38例76颗牙作为研究对象，38例行金属烤瓷单冠修复的患者随机分为排龈线组40颗 牙和排龈膏36颗牙两组，比较两组的排龈效果及治疗前后不同时间牙周出血指数(GBI)与牙周袋深度(PD)的变化情况.结果 排龈膏组总记录时间、留置在龈沟内的时间均明显短于排龈线组(P＜0.01).两组在牙预备体、印模、修复体边缘方面的满意度比较，差异无统计学意义 (P＞0.05).排龈膏组无疼率明显高于排龈线组(P＜0.01).排龈线组治疗后1周、治疗后4周以及治疗后6个月GBI均较治疗前有显著变化 (F=3.721，P ＜0.05)，且治疗后1周、治疗后4周以及治疗后6个月其GBI值较排龈膏组存在明显差异，而排龈膏组除治疗后1周GBI较治疗前升高外，而治疗4周及 治疗后6个月后其GBI较治疗前未见明显变化.两组治疗后1周的PD值均较治疗前明显升高，且排龈线组较排龈膏组变化更显著，而两组治疗后4周的PD值较 治疗前明显升高，但较治疗后1周明显降低，且排龈线组较排龈膏组变化更显著.结论 排龈线和排龈膏排龈效果基本相似，但排龈膏对排龈技术要求较低，且排龈过程中对牙周组织无损伤，同时患者不会感受到明显的痛觉，且操作时间短.
Interoute and Gulf Bridge International (GBI) have announced two agreements that will enhance the European networks of both companies as well as meet the growing capacity demand in the Gulf region.
Use of a modified Delphi approach to develop research priorities for the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
AIM：The modified Delphi approach is an established method for reaching a consensus opinion among a group of experts in a particular field. We have used this technique to survey the entire membership of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) to reach a consensus on prioritizing clinical research questions in colorectal disease.METHOD：Three rounds of surveys were conducted using a web-based tool. In the first， the ACPGBI membership was invited to submit research questions. In Rounds 2 and 3 they were asked to score questions on priority. A steering group analysed the results of each round to identify those questions ranked as being of highest priority.RESULTS：Five hundred and two questions were submitted in Round 1. Following two rounds of voting and analysis， a list of 25 priority questions was produced， including 15 cancer-related and 10 noncancer-related questions.CONCLUSION：It is anticipated that these results will： (i) set the research agenda over the next few years for the study of colorectal disease in the United Kingdom， (ii) promote development and (iii) define funding of new research and prioritize areas of unmet clinical need where the potential clinical impact is greatest.
Gingival retraction effect and impact on periodontal GBI and PD of two kinds of gingival retraction methods
Objective To investigate the effect of gingival retraction cord and gingival paste on the impact of periodontal local health.Methods 38 patients underwent single crown prosthodontics using porcelain fused to metal crown(PFM) were randomly divided into two groups.Treatment effect，periodontal bleeding index(GBI) and periodontal pocket depth(PD) changes before and after treatment in different times were compared.Results The total recording time of the gingival retraction paste group was significantly shorter than that in the retraction cord group(P0.01).The satisfaction of the two groups in the tooth preparation，impression，the edge of the prosthesis，the difference was not statistically significant(P0.05).No pain rate in Gingival retraction paste group was significantly higher than that in the retraction cord group(P0.01).The GBIs after treatment of 1 week，4 weeks and 6 months in retraction cord group had significant change，compared with those before treatment(F=3.721，P0.05).While The GBIs after treatment of 1 week，4 weeks and 6 months in retraction cord group had significant change，compared with those in the gingival retraction paste group.GBI after treatment of 1 week had significance，compared with that before in gingival paste group.，the PD values were significantly increased compared with those before treatment and gingival retraction cord group increased more than the gingival cream group.But PD value after treatment 6 weeks was obviously lower than that after treatment 1 week.Conclusion The effect of gingival retraction cord is similar to that of gingival retraction paste.But gingival retraction paste has following advantages： requiring lower the technical skills，having no damage to periodontal tissue，the patient feeling no significant pain and shorter operating time.
Advancing age is linked to a decrease in beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp. and reduced aspects of innate immune function.We investigated whether daily consumption of a probiotic [Bacillus coagulans GBI-30， 6086 (BC30); GanedenBC(30)] could improve immune function and gut function in men and women aged 65-80 y， using a double-blind， placebo-controlled crossover design.Thirty-six volunteers were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either a placebo (microcrystalline cellulose) or the probiotic BC30 (1 × 10(9) colony-forming units/capsule). Volunteers consumed 1 treatment capsule per day for 28 d， followed by a 21-d washout period before switching to the other treatment. Blood and fecal samples were collected at the beginning and end of each treatment period. Fecal samples were used to enumerate bacterial groups and concentrations of calprotectin. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were extracted from whole blood to assess natural killer cell activity and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production. C-reactive protein concentrations were measured in plasma.Consumption of BC30 significantly increased populations of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii by 0.1 log10 cells/mL more than during consumption of the placebo (P = 0.03)， whereas populations of Bacillus spp. increased significantly by 0.5 log10 cells/mL from baseline in volunteers who consumed BC30 (P = 0.007). LPS-stimulated PBMCs showed a 0.2 ng/mL increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 28 d after consumption of BC30 (P < 0.05)， whereas the placebo did not affect IL-10， and no overall difference was found in the effect of the treatments.Daily consumption of BC30 by adults aged 65-80 y can increase beneficial groups of bacteria in the human gut and potentially increase production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This study shows the potential benefits of a probiotic to improve dysbiosis via modulation of the microbiota in older persons.
Reliability and validity of the Spanish Glasgow Benefit Inventory after cochlear implant surgery in adults
In recent years， the outcome assessment of subjects undergoing otorhinolaryngological (ORL) intervention has relied increasingly upon patient-reported questionnaires. The English Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) is a reliable， sensitive and validated post-intervention questionnaire that is used to determine health-related quality-of-life (QoL) in patients following ORL intervention. The GBI has been translated into eight languages including Spanish. The present study aimed to determine the internal consistency and validity of the Spanish version of the GBI in patients with a cochlear implant (CI). 121 adult Spanish speaking patients with a CI were questioned retrospectively using the Spanish GBI. Reliability of the questionnaire was determined using Cronbach's α coefficient; factor analyses were performed using principal component extraction with orthogonal rotation; and validity was confirmed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The mean total score (mean ± standard deviation) of the GBI was 35.1 ± 23.6， 47.6 ± 28.9 for General Health， 17.9 ± 33.2 for Social Benefit and 1.7 ± 27.9 for Physical Health. The reliability was above 0.70 in all test domains. Using factor analyses a 4-factor solution that explained 63.2% of the variance was reached. The objective measures： bisyllables tested without lip-reading and without masking were correlated with the total score and the General Health subscales. The Spanish GBI is a reliable and practicable instrument for the assessment of health-related QoL in Spanish adult CI users.
Although this pilot investigation has limitations， the results suggest the presence of apraxia should be considered when planning oral healthcare strategies. Further research with larger samples is encouraged to confirm these relationships.
Long-term quality of life in patients with vestibular schwannoma: an international multicenter cross-sectional study comparing microsurgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, observation, and nontumor controls.
Abstract OBJECT The optimal treatment for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) is highly controversial. To date， the majority of studies comparing treatment modalities have focused on a narrow scope of technical outcomes including facial function， hearing status， and tumor control. Very few publications have investigated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) differences between individual treatment groups， and none have used a disease-specific HRQOL instrument. METHODS All patients with sporadic small- to medium-sized VSs who underwent primary microsurgery， stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)， or observation between 1998 and 2008 were identified. Subjects were surveyed via postal questionnaire using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36)， the 10-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short form (PROMIS-10)， the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI)， and the Penn Acoustic Neuroma Quality-of-Life (PANQOL) scale. Additionally， a pool of general population adults was surveyed， providing a nontumor control group for comparison. RESULTS A total of 642 respondents were analyzed. The overall response rate for patients with VS was 79%， and the mean time interval between treatment and survey was 7.7 years. Using multivariate regression， there were no statistically significant differences between management groups with respect to the PROMIS-10 physical or mental health dimensions， the SF-36 Physical or Mental Component Summary scores， or the PANQOL general， anxiety， hearing， or energy subdomains. Patients who underwent SRS or observation reported a better total PANQOL score and higher PANQOL facial， balance， and pain subdomain scores than the microsurgical cohort (p < 0.02). The differences in scores between the nontumor control group and patients with VS were greater than differences observed between individual treatment groups for the majority of measures. CONCLUSIONS The differences in HRQOL outcomes following SRS， observation， and microsurgery for VS are small. Notably， the diagnosis of VS rather than treatment strategy most significantly impacts quality of life. Understanding that a large number of VSs do not grow following discovery， and that intervention does not confer a long-term HRQOL advantage， small- and medium-sized VS should be initially observed， while intervention should be reserved for patients with unequivocal tumor growth or intractable symptoms that are amenable to treatment. Future studies assessing HRQOL in VS patients should prioritize use of validated disease-specific measures， such as the PANQOL， given the significant limitations of generic instruments in distinguishing between treatment groups and tumor versus nontumor subjects.
Prospective studies of quality of life (QOL) are infrequently performed in patients undergoing surgery for vestibular schwannoma (VS). The authors designed this to study to investigate health-related QOL (HR-QOL) in patients with large and giant VSs before and after surgery.Between January 2009 and December 2012， HR-QOL was measured prospectively before and after surgery， using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36)， in 100 patients who underwent surgery for unilateral large or giant VS (tumor size≥3 cm). The Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) was also used to evaluate the effect of surgery.A total of 100 patients were included in the study (65 men and 35 women). Their mean age (±SD) was 44.2±11.5 years. The preoperative QOL was decreased in all SF-36 domains. A 1-year follow-up evaluation was conducted for all patients (mean 13.5±5.3 months after surgery). The results showed an improvement in HR-QOL compared with preoperative status in all cases， with 63%-85% of patients showing a minimum clinically important difference (MCID) in various domains. A second follow-up evaluation was performed in 51 cases (mean time after surgery， 29.0±8.3 months) and showed sustained improvement in SF-36 scores. In some domains there was further improvement beyond the first follow-up. On the GBI， 87% of patients reported improvement， 1% felt no change， and 12% of patients reported deterioration.Patients harboring large or giant VSs score lower on all the QOL domains compared with the normative population. More than 60% showed a clinically significant improvement in HR-QOL 1 year after surgery， a result that was sustained at subsequent follow-up.