Myeloid-Specific Expression of Human Lysosomal Acid Lipase Corrects Malformation and Malfunction of Myeloid-derived Suppressive Cells in lal−/− Mice
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) cleaves cholesteryl esters and triglycerides to generate free fatty acids and cholesterol in lysosomes. LAL deficiency causes expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells， loss of T cells， and impairment of T cell function. To test how myeloid cell LAL controls myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis， a myeloid-specific doxycycline-inducible transgenic system was used to reintroduce human lysosomal acid lipase (hLAL) expression into LAL gene knockout (lal(-/-)) mice. Expression of hLAL in myeloid cells of lal(-/-) mice reversed abnormal myelopoiesis in the bone marrow starting at the granulocyte-monocyte progenitor stage and reduced systemic expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Myeloid hLAL expression inhibited reactive oxygen species production and arginase expression in CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells of lal(-/-) mice. Structural organization of the thymus and spleen was partially restored in association with reduced infiltration of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells in these mice. In the thymus， reconstitution of myeloid cell LAL restored development of thymocytes at the double-negative DN3 stage. Myeloid cell LAL expression improved the proliferation and function of peripheral T cells. In vitro coculture experiments showed that myeloid hLAL expression in lal(-/-) mice reversed CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cell suppression of CD4(+) T cell proliferation， T cell signaling activation， and lymphokine secretion. Blocking stat3 and NF-κB p65 signaling by small-molecule inhibitors in MDSCs achieved a similar effect. Injection of anti-Gr-1 Ab into lal(-/-) mice to deplete MDSCs restored T cell proliferation. These studies demonstrate that LAL in myeloid cells plays a critical role in maintaining normal hematopoietic cell development and balancing immunosuppression and inflammation.