目的 对普通级新西兰兔进行剖宫产，获得SPF兔，比较SPF兔和普通级兔血液学参数.方法 采取剖宫产手术培育成无菌兔，接种正常寄生菌使之SPF化.耳缘静脉采血，自动生化分析仪测定SPF兔、普通级兔血液学参数.结果 经检测SPF兔符合国家SPF兔标准;SPF兔和普通级新西兰兔白细胞数、血红蛋白、红细胞容积、中性粒细胞百分比、嗜酸性粒细胞百分比、嗜碱性粒细胞百 分比、中性粒细胞数、单核细胞数、嗜酸性粒细胞数、嗜碱性粒细胞数、总蛋白、球蛋白、白蛋白/球蛋白、谷酰转肽酶、葡萄糖、钙、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇等参数 差异极显著(P0.05).结论 不同等级微生物环境对新西兰兔血液学指标有显著影响.
Abstract The relationship between skin cancer and exposure to the sun is now clearly established. It is therefore necessary to ensure that consumers have effective sun protection. The effectiveness of the anti-solar products is quantified using a universal indicator， the SPF (sun protection factor). This value can be given in two different ways： by in vivo (standard ISO 24444：2010) and in vitro methods. The in vitro method was adopted for this study， for ethical reasons. The protective effect regarding non-melanoma cancers given by sun products has been proven. It is nevertheless a fact that consumers need to be made aware. Indeed， the quantity of sun protection product applied in reality by the consumer is clearly lower than the recommended amount. Under these conditions， the following question can be asked： What is the level of protection attained if half or even a quarter of the recommended dose of product is applied? In order to answer this question， 20 oils available on the market were tested in vitro at five different doses (5， 7.5， 10， 12.5， 15.0 mg over a surface of 25 cm(2)). We showed that a ratio of two polynomial functions exists between the SPF and the final mass of the product. The factors reducing the efficacy when the dose is divided by 2 are very variable， ranging from 2 to 4 according to which product is studied.
目的：比较两个封闭群SPF级昆明（ KM）小鼠的遗传差异，调查引进的SPF级KM小鼠封闭繁殖6年后，其遗传构成是否发生变化。方法应用微卫星DNA标记方法对18个位点在两个群体中的遗 传差异进行分析，主要包括观察等位基因数（ Na）、有效等位基因数（ Ne）、观察杂合度（ Ho）、期望杂合度（ He）、多态信息含量（PIC ）、Shan-non信息指数、遗传分化系数（ F st）、遗传距离等遗传参数。结果两个封闭群SPF 级KM小鼠在18个微卫星位点共发现67个等位基因，Na为2～8个，平均3.7222个；Ne为1.9459～6.5442，平均2.7966个；Ho 为0.4225～1.0000，平均0.8823；He为0.4892～0.8527，平均0.6162；Shannon信息指数 0.6792～1.9526，平均1.0598；PIC为0.3680～0.8301，平均0.5317；Fst平均值为0.0159，表明群体间的遗传 差异仅1.59％，二者间的遗传距离（DA）为0.0499。结论两个封闭群SPF级KM小鼠遗传结构相似度极高，它们与原引进群体的分化差异极小。
Comparative analysis of pathologic processes developing in mice housed in SPF vs non-SPF conditions and treated with cyclophosphamide and dsDNA preparation
Here we compare SPF and non-SPF animals， and demonstrate that the major cause of systemic inflammation and sepsis observed upon such treatments is activation of an opportunistic infection. Mice of the same strain (CBA) housed under SPF conditions do not develop the characteristic symptoms， nor do they become moribund. Yet， regardless of the breeding conditions， upon synergistic action of cyclophosphamide and dsDNA， CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells consistently fail to give rise to lymphoid lineage progenitors. We demonstrate that this differentiation defect is reversible and that population of lymphoid progenitors is restored by day 29 after cyclophosphamide injection.
Objective To set up a complete animals' database of toxicology background. Methods Collecting the result of the 960 Wistar rats in control group， and the rats were based on 30 day-feeding experiments which was performed in a SPF animal lab. Analyzing the mean and normal reference range as well as the connection between the indexes. Results( 1) Weight difference between male and female rats were of significant difference( P 0. 05). The relationship between body weight and food intake，as well as viscera weight，presented a linear correlation.( 2) Routine blood difference showed no statistical difference between male and female rats( P 0. 05)，while some blood biochemical detection showed significant difference( P 0. 05). Conclusion This research set up a relatively complete background database of Wistar rats at SPF grade. Comparing with the data of rats during different periods in the center，the standard deviations and the discrete degree of most indicators were reduced.
The “Dispersal Rate” ‐ a product dependent characteristic to predict the reliability of the calibrated in vitro SPF on WW5 plates
Abstract Objectives The evaluation of the SPF by the measurement of light transmission through a thin film on PMMA-plates is an interesting alternative to the conventional in vivo method. However， during the last years an internationally acknowledged in vitro SPF measurement could not be established mainly due to bad reproducibility. With this work we would like to give new suggestions for an improved reproducibility and to open new space for discussion. Methods 22 o/w emulsions with well-established in vivo SPF were measured in vitro close to the international Standard ISO 24443 on two different substrates (PMMA-plates： WW5 and HD6). For each product the ratio “in vitro SPF raw /in vivo SPF” was calculated. The composition of the products was analyzed regarding a parameter that correlates with the aforementioned ratio. Additionally seven suitable calibration products were determined to transfer the in vitro SPF raw to the calibrated in vitro SPF cal . Results We could show that the results for the SPF cal matched very well for 19 measured o/w emulsions on WW5 plates. However， we found two products where the in vitro SPF was much lower than the in vivo SPF. The Dispersal Rate allows us to identify a product characteristic parameter to predict too low measured in vitro SPFs on WW5 plates. This parameter mainly refers to the ratio of water to lipids in an emulsion. We found that products with few emollients and few emulsifiers are measured too low in vitro. Conclusion We suggest implementing an individual calibration of the in vitro SPF to improve the reproducibility of in vitro SPF measurements between different labs. Considering the Dispersal Rate helps to estimate the reliability of the in vitro SPF measured on WW5 plates. In order to evaluate whether those products with a high Dispersal Rate can also be calibrated with special standards， further measurements need to be done. We demonstrate that， besides the known parameter， also the composition of the products should be considered for the interpretation of the in vitro SPF. Our findings could explain some multiple reported problems in correlation between in vitro and in vivo SPF， especially for higher SPFs . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
摘 要： 目的对比通用引物SPF1/GP6++与SPF1/GP6+PCR两种方法检测人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)的敏感度和感染型别范围。方法以包含HPV16全长DNA序列的质粒为模板，应用HPV L1基因型别特异性引物进行PCR扩增，获得15种型别HPV模拟靶基因序列并克隆入p EASY-T1载体，将梯度稀释的重组质粒掺入50 ng正常人基因组DNA，模拟各型别HPV感染的待测样本，对比SPF1/GP6+和SPF1/GP6++两组通用引物的检测敏感度。进一步在68例人宫颈癌组织DNA样本中进行对比验证。结果与SPF1/GP6+PCR比较，SPF1/GP6++PCR对HPV11，31，34，39，51，52，53，56，58，61和66型别的检测敏感度提高了1到2个数量级，对于HPV16，18，33和35常见感染型别的检测敏感度相似。应用SPF1/GP6++PCR检测宫颈癌组织HPV感染的总阳性率为98.5%(67/68)，检测到11例双重感染和2例三重感染;而应用SPF1/GP6+PCR检测的总阳性率为95.6%(65/68)，仅检测到7例双重感染。结论在SPF1/GP6+PCR基础上建立了SPF1/GP6++PCR方法，并证实SPF1/GP6++PCR具有更高的检测敏感度和更广的HPV型别检测范围。
3-(3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzylidene)-2,4-pentanedione: Design of a Novel Photostabilizer with In-vivo SPF Boosting Properties and Its Use in Developing Broad-spectrum Sunscreen Formulations
Abstract OBJECTIVE： The study concerned the synthesis of a novel photostabilizer based on benzylidenepentanedione chemistry and the evaluation of its potential in developing a broad-spectrum sunscreen formulation containing avobenzone. METHODS： 3-(3，4，5-Trimethoxybenzylidene)-2-4-pentanedione (TMBP) was synthesized through a condensation reaction and incorporated into a sunscreen formulation containing， inter alia， avobenzone. The SPF， critical wavelength and in-vitro photostability of the product were measured. The photostability was compared with that afforded by current avobenzone photostabilizers， namely， octocrylene， ethylhexylmethoxycrylene and diethyhexylsyringylidenemalonate. The photostability of TMBP either alone or in the presence of avobenzone in a methanolic solution was also evaluated by UV spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses. The optical properties of TMBP were estimated experimentally and supported by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. RESULTS： The ability of TMBP to stabilize avobenzone under ultraviolet (UV) light exposure was shown both in formulated products and in solution. A comparative stability study incorporating various combinations of avobenzone， TMBP (versus three commercial photostabilizers) and UVB sunscreens clearly showed TMBP to be a very effective stabilizer. The photostabilizing effect of TMBP seems to arise from triplet-state energy transfer from avobenzone to TMBP and through light-induced reactions that preserve the main chromophores. Interestingly， a 50% in-vivo SPF boosting was observed when TMBP was used with organic and inorganic sunscreens while alone it has no contribution to SPF. TMBP-containing sunscreen formulations clearly showed a critical wavelength of well over 370 nm and can thus be categorized as broad-spectrum sunscreens. CONCLUSION： We were able to design a very effective photostabilizer， trimethoxybenzylidene pentanedione (INCI name)， based on benzylidenepentanedione chemistry. TMBP is very efficient in stabilizing avobenzone in formulated products， boosts in-vivo SPF by >50% for organic and inorganic sunscreens and the formulations have critical wavelengths of >370 nm. These efficacious properties make it a promising additive for inclusion in broad-spectrum photoprotective products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
目的探讨SPF和正常鼠下呼吸 道菌群多样性区别，为研究洁净环境下呼吸道菌群对免疫耐受形成的影响提供简便的动物模型。方法采用飞行质谱和DGGE的方法检测正常和SPF BALB/c小鼠及Wistar大鼠呼吸道支气管肺泡灌洗液中菌群多样性的区别。结果 SPF BALB/c小鼠下呼吸道菌群丰度小于普通小鼠，下呼吸道菌群丰度小于消化道。SPF Wistar大鼠下呼吸道菌群丰度小于普通大鼠.结论 SPF环境造成鼠下呼吸道菌群丰度减小。
目的：测定本草防晒霜的防晒指数(sun protection factor，SPF).方法：选取20名受试者进行双前臂屈侧皮肤自身对照，左侧为试验组(按常规用法涂抹本草防晒霜)，右侧为空白对照组(不涂抹任何 防晒霜).接受德国WaidmannUV801 BL窄谱311紫外线治疗仪照射，按递加剂量，观察左右前臂屈侧出现红斑的照射量及时间，确定最小红斑量，进而计算本草防晒霜的SPF值.结果：最小红斑 量为2.3 J/cm2，SPF值=18.32.结论：本草防晒霜的SPF值为18，可以作为一种防晒产品供健康人群选择.