Maintaining skin integrity and managing the microclimate around the skin is of paramount importance. Incontinence products such as pads or full bed mats are often used in order to absorb moisture and maintain a dry environment around the skin. Another method of protecting the skin from moisture contact is to apply a barrier cream; this is routinely done by healthcare professionals and carers. Some reports have suggested that the use of a barrier cream will hinder the efficacy of any products designed to move moisture away from the skin interface and， therefore， the use of both products in conjunction may limit their performance for their intended purpose. There are several different formulations of barrier cream commercially available for use， with various active ingredients that produce a protective barrier between the patientâ€™s skin and moisture. This can either be a paste-type application or a film-type formulation that dries and leaves a protective barrier. This study aimed to identify whether there is a performance limitation of absorbent incontinence products following the application of a selection of commercially-available barrier creams and to identify whether LBF barrier cream varies significantly with respect to other barrier creams. All of the creams were found to have similar effects on incontinence pad performance， with the absorbency of the incontinence products not being significantly affected by the transfer of cream. The LBF barrier cream product compared favourably with the other commercially available formulations.
The normal action of insulin to vasodilate and redistribute blood flow in support of skeletal muscle metabolism is impaired in insulin-resistant states. Increased endogenous endothelin contributes to endothelial dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Here， we test the hypothesis that increased endogenous endothelin action also contributes to skeletal muscle insulin resistance via impairments in insulin-stimulated vasodilation. We studied nine lean and seven obese humans， measuring the metabolic and hemodynamic effects of insulin (300 mU . m(-2) . min(-1)) alone and during femoral artery infusion of BQ123 (an antagonist of type A endothelin receptors， 1 micromol/min). Endothelin antagonism augmented skeletal muscle responses to insulin in obese subjects through changes in both leg blood flow (LBF) and glucose extraction. Insulin-stimulated LBF was significantly increased in obese subjects only. These changes， combined with differential effects on glucose extraction， resulted in augmented insulin-stimulated leg glucose uptake in obese subjects (54.7 +/- 5.7 vs. 107.4 +/- 18.9 mg/min with BQ123)， with no change in lean subjects (103.7 +/- 11.4 vs. 88.9 +/- 16.3， P = 0.04 comparing BQ123 across groups). BQ123 allowed augmented leg glucose extraction in obese subjects even in the face of NOS antagonism. These findings suggest that increased endogenous endothelin action contributes to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of obese humans， likely through both vascular and tissue effects.
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This study aims to investigate the feasibility of Levodopa transdermal delivery systems (TDSs). Levodopa TDSs were formulated using various vehicles and permeation enhancers， and in vitro permeation and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies were carried out. In the in vitro study， ester-type vehicles showed relatively high enhancing effects; propylene glycol monocaprylate and propylene glycol monolaurate showed the highest permeation fluxes from both solution and pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) TDS formulations. Lag time was dramatically shortened with PSA TDS formulations as compared with solution formulations. In the in vivo study， the addition of fatty acids increased blood drug concentrations regardless of the kind or concentration of fatty acid; the AUCinf increased up to 8.7 times as compared with propylene glycol (PG) alone. PSA TDS containing 10% linoleic acid exhibited prolonged Tmax as compared with oral form. Total clearance of L-dopa from PSA TDSs was significantly lower than from oral form (up to 86.8 times). Especially， PSA TDS containing 10% linoleic acid (LOA) revealed 76.2 fold higher AUCinf than oral administration. Based on our results， the L-dopa PSA TDS containing PG with 10% LOA could be used as a good adjuvant therapy for Parkinson's disease patients who experience symptom fluctuation by L-dopa oral administration.
The article discusses the highlights of the London Book Fair 2009. Discussion among fair participants revolved around the state of the economy， with U.S. publishers stating that the declining exchange rate of the British pound has made English books more affordable. The biggest topic of conversation was digital publishing as several publishers revealed their preparations to be e-book ready.
The past decade has seen a huge growth in the application of silicone-based products to the healthcare market， with this technology finding its way into diverse areas ranging from the manufacture of disposable contact lenses to urinary catheters， and the development of a new generation of wound and skin care products. However， the current development of topical silicone treatments to protect the skin is not a new idea， but rather a renaissance， with the first of these products being developed in the 1940s as a substance known as 'water glass' or sodium silicate. Although the years have past， the challenges for nursing remain the same， with the need to protect vulnerable areas of the skin and the prevention of skin breakdown forming one of the cornerstones of professional care across all spheres of practice. This article considers the role that silicone-based barrier films， such as CliniMed's LBF， can play in the prevention and management of skin breakdown.
Fermentation supernatants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii inhibit growth of human colon cancer cells and induce apoptosis through a caspase 3-dependent pathway.
Probiotic are known to exert a wide range of beneficial effects on their animal . Therefore， the present study explored the effect of the supernatants obtained from (LBF) on . The results indicated that the proliferation of LBF solution-treated SW620 cells was arrested and accumulated in the in a concentration-dependent manner. The LBF solution efficiently induced through the intrinsic caspase 3-depedent pathway， with a corresponding decreased expression of . The activity of ， which is associated with the invasion of cells， was also decreased in the LBF-treated cells. In conclusion， the results demonstrate the antitumor effect of LBF in vitro and may contribute to the of novel therapies for the treatment of .
Performance analysis of the protective effects of bicycle helmets during impact and crush tests in pediatric skull models.
Bicycle accidents are a very important cause of clinically important traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. One factor that has been shown to mitigate the severity of lesions associated with TBI in such scenarios is the proper use of a helmet. The object of this study was to test and evaluate the protection afforded by a children's bicycle helmet to human cadaver skulls with a child's anthropometry in both "impact" and "crushing" situations.The authors tested human skulls with and without bicycle helmets in drop tests in a monorail-guided free-fall impact apparatus from heights of 6 to 48 in onto a flat steel anvil. Unhelmeted skulls were dropped at 6 in， with progressive height increases until failure (fracture). The maximum resultant acceleration rates experienced by helmeted and unhelmeted skulls on impact were recorded by an accelerometer attached to the skulls. In addition， compressive forces were applied to both helmeted and unhelmeted skulls in progressive amounts. The tolerance in each circumstance was recorded and compared between the two groups.Helmets conferred up to an 87% reduction in so-called mean maximum resultant acceleration over unhelmeted skulls. In compression testing， helmeted skulls were unable to be crushed in the compression fixture up to 470 pound-force (approximately 230 kgf)， whereas both skull and helmet alone failed in testing.Children's bicycle helmets provide measurable protection in terms of attenuating the acceleration experienced by a skull on the introduction of an impact force. Moreover， such helmets have the durability to mitigate the effects of a more rare but catastrophic direct compressive force. Therefore， the use of bicycle helmets is an important preventive tool to reduce the incidence of severe associated TBI in children as well as to minimize the morbidity of its neurological consequences.
Autologous bone-marrow mononuclear cell implantation improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with limb ischemia.
Patients with limb ischemia were associated with endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autologous bone-marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNC) implantation improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with limb ischemia.We evaluated the leg blood flow (LBF) response to acetylcholine (ACh)， an endothelium-dependent vasodilator， and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)， an endothelium-independent vasodilator， before and after BM-MNC implantation in 7 patients with limb ischemia. LBF was measured with a mercury-filled Silastic strain-gauge plethysmograph. The number of BM-MNCs implanted into ischemic limbs was 1.6x10(9)+/-0.3x10(9). The number of CD34+ cells included in the implanted BM-MNCs was 3.8x10(7)+/-1.6x10(7). BM-MNC implantation improved the ankle-brachial pressure index (0.33+/-0.21 to 0.39+/-0.17， P=0.06)， transcutaneous oxygen pressure (28.4+/-11.5 to 36.6+/-5.2 mm Hg， P=0.03)， and pain-free walking time (0.8+/-0.6 to 2.9+/-2.2 minutes， P=0.02). After BM-MNC implantation， LBF response to ACh was enhanced (19.3+/-6.8 versus 29.6+/-7.1 mL/min per 100 mL; P=0.002). The vasodilatory effect of SNP was similar before and after BM-MNC implantation.These findings suggest that BM-MNC implantation augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with limb ischemia.