Subcutaneous injection of bee venom causes long-term neural activation and hypersensitization in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord， which contributes to the and maintenance of various pain-related . The unique behavioral 'phenotypes' of and hypersensitivity identified in the rodent bee venom test are believed to reflect a complex pathological state of inflammatory pain and might be appropriate to the study of phenotype-based mechanisms of pain and hyperalgesia. In this review， the spinal processing of the bee venom-induced different 'phenotypes' of pain and hyperalgesia will be described. The accumulative electrophysiological， pharmacological， and behavioral data strongly suggest that different 'phenotypes' of pain and hyperalgesia are mediated by different spinal signaling pathways. Unraveling the phenotype-based mechanisms of pain might be useful in of novel therapeutic drugs against complex clinic pathological pain.
Effectiveness of bee venom acupuncture in alleviating post-stroke shoulder pain： a systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND：Shoulder pain is a common complication of stroke.Bee venom acupuncture(BVA)is increasingly used in the treatment of post-stroke shoulder pain.OBJECTIVE：To summarize and evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of BVA in relieving shoulder pain after stroke.SEARCH STRATEGY：Nine databases，namely MEDLINE，EMBASE，the Cochrane Library，the China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI)，the Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator，Electronic(J-STAGE)，and four Korean medical databases，namely，the National Assembly Library，the Research Information Service System，the National Discovery for Science Leaders，and OASIS，were searched from their inception through August 2014 without language restrictions.INCLUSION CRITERIA：Randomized controlled trials(RCTs)were included if BVA was used at acupoints as the sole treatment，or as an adjunct to other treatments，for shoulder pain after stroke.DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS：Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion，assessed methodological quality and extracted data.RESULTS：A total of 138 potentially relevant articles were identifi ed，4 of which were RCTs that met our inclusion criteria.The quality of studies included was generally low，and a preponderance of positive results was demonstrated.All four trials reported favorable effects of BVA on shoulder pain after stroke.Two RCTs assessing the effects of BVA on post-stroke shoulder pain，as opposed to saline injections，were included in the meta-analysis.Pain was signifi cantly lower for BVA than for saline injections(standardized mean difference on 10-cm visual analog scale：1.46 cm，95%CI=0.30–2.62，P=0.02，n=86)CONCLUSION：This review provided evidence suggesting that BVA is effective in relieving shoulder pain after stroke.However，further studies are needed to confi rm the role of BVA in alleviating post-stroke shoulder pain.Future studies should be conducted with large samples and rigorous study designs.
摘 要： 目的在病区内布置无线传感器网络，文时监护住院患者的生命体征，实现护理的智能化，减少陪护需求，减轻医护人员工作量，提高护理质精，降低医疗费用。方法患者统一佩戴集成传感器的无线监护腕表，利用zigbee技术在病区内布置无线传感器网络，连接服务主机实现对患者生命体征的实时智能化监护和管理。结果基于Zigbee的无线护理监护系统实现了对患者的实时、主动监测，使医护人员随时掌握每个患者的相关数据，用做诊疗的依据。结论无线传感器网络系统的使用，提高了患者的就医体验，减轻了医护人员的.工作强度，从而改善了医疗服务质量。
Background： Bee sting therapy is increasingly used to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the belief that it can stabilize or ameliorate the disease. However， there are no clinical studies to justify its use. Methods： In a randomized， crossover study， we assigned 26 patients with relapsing-remitting or relapsing secondary progressive MS to 24 weeks of medically supervised bee sting therapy or 24 weeks of no treatment. Live bees (up to a maximum of 20) were used to administer bee venom three times per week. The primary outcome was the cumulative number of new gadolinium-enhancing lesions on T1-weighted MRI of the brain. Secondary outcomes were lesion load on T2*-weighted MRI， relapse rate， disability ( Expanded Disability Status Scale， Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite， Guy's Neurologic Disability Scale)， fatigue ( Abbreviated Fatigue Questionnaire， Fatigue Impact Scale)， and health-related quality of life ( Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form General Health Survey). Results： During bee sting therapy， there was no significant reduction in the cumulative number of new gadolinium-enhancing lesions. The T2*-weighted lesion load further progressed， and there was no significant reduction in relapse rate. There was no improvement of disability， fatigue， and quality of life. Bee sting therapy was well tolerated， and there were no serious adverse events. Conclusions： In this trial， treatment with bee venom in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis did not reduce disease activity， disability， or fatigue and did not improve quality of life.
叙述了一种基于物联网 (Zigbee)的多生理参数健康管理检测终端的研制。心电、心率、血压、血氧、体温等生理参数的检测由自行设计的独立模块完成，各生理参数检测模块内置 物联网模块以传输数据，采用的物联网网络为Zigbee网络，蓝牙转Zigbee网关接收Zigbee网络的数据并通过蓝牙传输到具有蓝牙接口的运行 Android系统的个人终端(手机或平板电脑)，由个人终端显示，需要时上传到网络数据库。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV) and sweet bee venom (SBV) againstCandida albicans(C. albicans) clinical isolates. In this study， BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) strain and 10 clinical isolates ofC. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were performed by using a broth microdilution method. Also， a killing curve assay was conducted to investigate the kinetics of the anti- fungal action. BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against 10 clinical isolates ofC. albicansthat were cultured from blood and the vagina by using disk diffusion method. The MIC values obtained for clinical isolates by using the broth microdilution method varied from 62.5 μg/ mL to 125 μg/mL for BV and from 15.63 μg/mL to 62.5 μg/mL for SBV. In the killing-curve assay， SBV behaved as amphotericin B， which was used as positive control， did. The antifungal efficacy of SBV was much higher than that of BV. BV and SBV showed antifungal activity againstC. albicansclinical strains that were isolated from blood and the vagina. Especially， SBV might be a candidate for a new antifungal agent againstC. albicansclinical isolates.
Keywords： bee sting therapy; foreign body reaction; histopathologic examination
摘 要： 目的：构建基于北斗和ZigBee技术的海上伤病员定位系统.方法：对信息化条件下海上伤病员定位技术的现状进行研究，并分析海上伤病员定位系统的技术基础以及海上落水人员搜救定位需求.结果：初步构建了海上伤病员定位系统，拟制了海上伤病员定位流程.结论：以北斗卫星导航系统和ZigBee技术为基础构建的海上伤员定位系统，可以解决海上伤病员定位搜救的相关问题，提高海上落水人员的救治水平和保障能力.
Summary Top of page Summary Introduction Materials and methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements Declaration of interest References Objective Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic disease with four factors involved in the development of lesions. Treatments need to address as many of these underlying factors as possible in order to reduce acne lesions. As such， purified bee venom (PBV ™ ) serum is an attractive therapeutic option for acne， but little data exist on the efficacy of this treatment strategy. Methods In this prospective， noncomparative study， 30 subjects having mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris were enrolled and treated with PBV ™ serum twice daily for a period of 6 weeks. Clinical evaluation of lesions by expert visual grading and image analysis were made at weeks 0 (baseline)， 3， and 6. Results The average visual acne grade of all volunteers significantly improved with the PBV ™ serum treatment at weeks 3 ( P < 0.05) and 6 ( P < 0.001) when compared with the baseline grade at week 0. In addition， there was a mean percent improvement of 8.6% and 52.3% in acne grade observed after 3 and 6 weeks of PBV ™ serum use， with 20% and 77% of the subjects showing improvement， respectively， when compared with baseline. Moreover， the subjects showed improvement in open comedones， closed comedones， papules， pustules， and nodules after 3 and 6 weeks of PBV ™ serum use. Conclusion Six weeks of treatment with PBV ™ serum was found to be effective in the treatment of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris， with no incidence of serious side effects or irritation.
Bee venom therapy has been used to treat immune-related diseases such as arthritis for a long time. Recently， it has revealed that group III secretory phospholipase A2 from bee venom (bee venom group III sPLA2) has in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects. A growing number of reports have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2. Notably， new experimental data have shown protective immune responses of bee venom group III sPLA2 against a wide range of diseases including asthma， Parkinson’s disease， and drug-induced organ inflammation. It is critical to evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 because this enzyme is known to be the major allergen of bee venom that can cause anaphylactic shock. For many decades， efforts have been made to avoid its adverse effects. At high concentrations， exposure to bee venom group III sPLA2 can result in damage to cellular membranes and necrotic cell death. In this review， we summarized the current knowledge about the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 on several immunological diseases and described the detailed mechanisms of bee venom group III sPLA2 in regulating various immune responses and physiopathological changes.